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Introduction

Jihad?

Islam and Jihad.

What the Quran says.

What the Hadith says.

Bibliography

 

Islam and Jihad.

 

Letís briefly look at Islam and its fundamental beliefs before we move on to clarifying the concept of Jihad. These definitions and beliefs will form the background for the discussion of Jihad.

 

 

Islam originated in the seventh century in Arabia by Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him). Mecca which was the holy city of Islam at the moment was a center and place of pilgrimage. The Prophet Abraham was the one who set the Kaaba as the place of worship. During the time, a period known as the period of Jahiliyya (period of ignorance) co-existed where people were practiced paganism and idol worshipping and these resulted to a lot of social problems and illness and Muhammad (peace be upon him) had to grow up with it.

At the age of 40, Muhammad (peace be upon him) received his first revelation in the cave of Hira'. This revelation from Allah sent down verses and commands for him to bring the community against paganism, idol worship and other social ills that were widely spread in the society.

 

The First of the Revelations

Arabic Text: بِسْمِ اللهِ الرَّحْمنِ الرَّحِيمِ
Translation: In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful

Arabic Text: اقْرَأْ بِاسْمِ رَبِّكَ الَّذِي خَلَقَ
Translation: Read: In the name of thy Lord Who createth Quran: 96:1

Arabic Text: خَلَقَ الْإِنسَانَ مِنْ عَلَقٍ
Translation: Createth man from a clot. Quran: 96:2

Arabic Text: اقْرَأْ وَرَبُّكَ الْأَكْرَمُ
Translation: Read: And thy Lord is the Most Bounteous, Quran: 96:3

Arabic Text: الَّذِي عَلَّمَ بِالْقَلَمِ
Translation: Who teacheth by the pen, Quran: 96:4

Arabic Text: عَلَّمَ الْإِنسَانَ مَا لَمْ يَعْلَمْ
Translation: Teacheth man that which he knew not. Quran: 96:5

 

Islamic History (Chronology)

6th Century (500-599) C.E.

545: Birth of Abdullah, the Holy Prophet's father.
571: Birth of the Holy Prophet. Year of the Elephant. Invasion of Makkah by Abraha the Viceroy of Yemen, his retreat.
577: The Holy Prophet visits Madina with his mother. Death of his mother.
580: Death of Abdul Muttalib, the grandfather of the Holy Prophet.
583: The Holy Prophet's journey to Syria in the company of his uncle Abu Talib. His meeting with the monk Bahira at Bisra who foretells of his prophethood.
586: The Holy Prophet participates in the war of Fijar.
591: The Holy Prophet becomes an active member of "Hilful Fudul", a league for the relief of the distressed.
594: The Holy Prophet becomes the Manager of the business of Lady Khadija, and leads her trade caravan to Syria and back.
595: The Holy Prophet marries Hadrat Khadija. Seventh century

7th Century (600-699) C.E.

605: The Holy Prophet arbitrates in a dispute among the Quraish about the placing of the Black Stone in the Kaaba.
610: The first revelation in the cave at Mt. Hira. The Holy Prophet is commissioned as the Messenger of God.
613: Declaration at Mt. Sara inviting the general public to Islam.
614: Invitation to the Hashimites to accept Islam.
615: Persecution of the Muslims by the Quraish. A party of Muslims leaves for Abyssinia.
616: Second Hijrah to Abysinnia.
617: Social boycott of the Hashimites and the Holy Prophet by the Quraish. The Hashimites are shut up in a glen outside Makkah.
619: Lifting of the boycott. Deaths of Abu Talib and Hadrat Khadija. Year of sorrow.
620: Journey to Taif. Ascension to the heavens.
621: First pledge at Aqaba.
622: Second pledge at Aqaba. The Holy Prophet and the Muslims migrate to Yathrib. 
623: Nakhla expedition.
624: Battle of Badr. Expulsion of the Bani Qainuqa Jews from Madina.
625: Battle of Uhud. Massacre of 70 Muslims at Bir Mauna. Expulsion of Banu Nadir Jews from Madina. Second expedition of Badr.
626: Expedition of Banu Mustaliq.
627: Battle of the Trench. Expulsion of Banu Quraiza Jews.
628: Truce of Hudaibiya. Expedition to Khyber. The Holy Prophet addresses letters to various heads of states.
629: The Holy Prophet performs the pilgrimage at Makkah. Expedition to Muta (Romans).
630: Conquest of Makkah. Battles of Hunsin, Auras, and Taif.
631: Expedition to Tabuk. Year of Deputations.
632: Farewell pilgrimage at Makkah.
632: Death of the Holy Prophet. Election of Hadrat Abu Bakr as the Caliph. Usamah leads expedition to Syria. Battles of Zu Qissa and Abraq. Battles of Buzakha, Zafar and Naqra. Campaigns against Bani Tamim and Musailima, the Liar.
633: Campaigns in Bahrain, Oman, Mahrah Yemen, and Hadramaut. Raids in Iraq. Battles of Kazima, Mazar, Walaja, Ulleis, Hirah, Anbar, Ein at tamr, Daumatul Jandal and Firaz.
634: Battles of Basra, Damascus and Ajnadin. Death of Hadrat Abu Bakr. Hadrat Umar Farooq becomes the Caliph. Battles of Namaraq and Saqatia.
635: Battle of Bridge. Battle of Buwaib. Conquest of Damascus. Battle of Fahl.
636: Battle of Yermuk. Battle of Qadsiyia. Conquest of Madain.
637: Conquest of Syria. Fall of Jerusalem. Battle of Jalula.
638: Conquest of Jazirah.
639: Conquest of Khuizistan. Advance into Egypt.
640: Capture of the post of Caesaria in Syria. Conquest of Shustar and Jande Sabur in Persia. Battle of Babylon in Egypt.
641: Battle of Nihawand. Conquest Of Alexandria in Egypt.
642: Battle of Rayy in Persia. Conquest of Egypt. Foundation of Fustat.
643: Conquest of Azarbaijan and Tabaristan (Russia).
644: Conquest of Fars, Kerman, Sistan, Mekran and Kharan.Martyrdom of Hadrat Umar. Hadrat Othman becomes the Caliph.
645: Campaigns in Fats.
646: Campaigns in Khurasan, Armeain and Asia Minor.
647: Campaigns in North Africa. Conquest of the island of Cypress.
648: Campaigns against the Byzantines.
651: Naval battle of the Masts against the Byzantines.
652: Discontentment and disaffection against the rule of Hadrat Othman.
656: Martyrdom of Hadrat Othman. Hadrat Ali becomes the Caliph. Battle of the Camel.
657: Hadrat Ali shifts the capital from Madina to Kufa. Battle of Siffin. Arbitration proceedings at Daumaut ul Jandal.
658: Battle of Nahrawan.
659: Conquest of Egypt by Mu'awiyah.
660: Hadrat Ali recaptures Hijaz and Yemen from Mu'awiyah. Mu'awiyah declares himself as the Caliph at Damascus.
661: Martyrdom of Hadrat Ali. Accession of Hadrat Hasan and his abdication. Mu'awiyah becomes the sole Caliph.
662: Khawarij revolts.
666: Raid of Sicily.
670: Advance in North Africa. Uqba b Nafe founds the town of Qairowan in Tunisia. Conquest of Kabul.
672: Capture of the island of Rhodes. Campaigns in Khurasan.
674: The Muslims cross the Oxus. Bukhara becomes a vassal state.
677: Occupation of Sarnarkand and Tirmiz. Siege of Constantinople.
680: Death of Muawiyah. Accession of Yazid. Tragedy of Kerbala and martyrdom of Hadrat Hussain.
682: In North Africa Uqba b Nafe marches to the Atlantic, is ambushed and killed at Biskra. The Muslims evacuate Qairowan and withdraw to Burqa.
683: Death of Yazid. Accession of Mu'awiyah II.
684: Abdullah b Zubair declares himself aS the Caliph at'Makkah. Marwan I becomes the Caliph' at Damascus. Battle of Marj Rahat.
685: Death of Marwan I. Abdul Malik becomes the Caliph at Damascus. Battle of Ain ul Wada.
686: Mukhtar declares himself as the Caliph at Kufa.
687: Battle of Kufa between the forces of Mukhtar and Abdullah b Zubair. Mukhtar killed.
691: Battle of Deir ul Jaliq. Kufa falls to Abdul Malik.
692: The fall of Makkah. Death of Abdullah b Zubair. Abdul Malik becomes the sole Caliph.
695: Khawarij revolts in Jazira and Ahwaz. Battle of the Karun. Campaigns against Kahina in North Africa. The' Muslims once again withdraw to Barqa. The Muslims advance in Transoxiana and occupy Kish.

8th Century (700-799) C.E.

9th Century (800-899) C.E.

 

Shahadah (Testimony of Faith)

To become a Muslim one must affirm the Shahadah;

"La-Illah-il lallah-Muhammad ur-Rasul-Allah"

(there is no god but God (Allah) and Muhammad is the Prophet)

The Islamic concept of God (Allah) is imperative and fundamental to Islamic faith. Islam believes in the complete Oneness or Unity of God (Allah). God (Allah) is Omnipresent, Omnipotent and Transcendent,

9 Conditions of the Shahadah :

  1. KNOWLEDGE: ('ilm).
  2. CERTAINTY (yaqeen).
  3. ACCEPTANCE (qabool).
  4. SUBMISSION and COMPLIANCE (Inqiyad).
  5. TRUTHFULNESS (as-sidq), as opposed to hypocrisy and dishonesty.
  6. SINCERITY (or al-ikhlass).
  7. LOVE (mahabbah).
  8. DENIAL OF FALSE WORSHIP.
  9. ADHERENCE (astaqeem) until death.

 

Five Pillars of Islam.

 

  • Faith or belief in the Oneness of God and the finality of the prophethood of Muhammad;
  • Establishment of the daily prayers;
  • Concern for and almsgiving to the needy;
  • Self-purification through fasting; and
  • The pilgrimage to Makkah for those who are able.

 

The Six Articles of Faith

         Belief in God

         Belief in His Angels

         Belief in His Books

         Belief in His Prophets and Messengers

         Belief in the Day of Judgment

         Belief in Godís Divine Decree

 

Oneness of God

(there is no God but Allah)

The word tawhid which means the Oneness of God (Allah) explains the idea that God is without an associate. Shirk or associating other creature with God (Allah) is condemned in Islam.

 

The Quran

The Quran gives general principles of humanitarianism, egalitarianism, social and economic justice, righteousness, and solidarity. It is necessary to well-being in this world and well-being in the hereafter. Also, it outlines legal and ethical values which govern Muslim life. The Prophet succeeded in his own lifetime in establishing the city state of Medina which he ran in harmony with the principles of the Quran.

After Muhammad, the Quranic doctrines were followed by his successors, the first four Caliphs, who are called  "the rightly guided." The principles and the practices followed by Muslims in this era are known as the Law of Sharia.

The Sharia says that the sovereignty resides in God (Allah) and that the state has to act within the confines of the divine law, (the Sharia). This autonomy is recognized by incorporation of Sharia in an Islamic society or state.

The notion of Holy Struggle (jihad) may only be understood if the concept of the doctrine of enjoining right and forbiding wrong (al-amr bi'l-maruf) is properly appreciated, and good and bad, right and wrong, can only be understood if the independent divine source of righteousness, truth, and goodness (tawhid), and how the Message of the divine source of righteousness and truth has been honestly and properly conveyed to humanity through prophethood, are understood.